Conditioned reflexes of the highest orders are easier formed on the basis of a painful, but not food reinforcement that is clear from the point of view of the huge biological importance of an instinct of a survival. At development of food conditioned reflexes of the highest orders it is necessary to work with rather hungry animal having strongly expressed food motivation (food excitement.
ideomotorny acts of Shevrel show that, thinking of the movement, the person involuntarily makes these movements. The involuntary micromovements, amplifying a long pendulum (thread), are transformed to the movements of a pendulum visible with the naked eye.
Imitating conditioned reflexes are well studied at monkeys who, having heard blows of a gong, resorted to a door of the open-air cage and did not receive any reinforcement as one banana thrown by the researcher only was eaten by the leader of herd. Nevertheless, a conditioned reflex on a gong in shape
The conditioned reflexes developed at a reinforcement by food or painful influences received the name of conditioned reflexes of the I order. However, animals are capable to form conditioned reflexes on the incentives having more mediated communication with an unconditional reinforcement. So, having a food reflex of the I order at a dog, it is possible to develop a conditioned reflex of the II order, and on the basis of a conditioned reflex of the II order it is possible to develop a conditioned reflex of the III order, etc.
The experiments similar to Mac Connell's experiences on planarias, were carried out on other animal species. Results showed that introduction of suspension of a brain of the trained animals the untrained increased at the last the speed of formation of the corresponding conditioned reflexes. It appeared that at elderly people with the weakened memory introduction of solution pure RNA improved storing processes. These data testify in favor of the chemical mechanism of long-term memory connected with changes of structure of macromolecules of RNA. It should be noted, however, that the processes providing a physiological basis short-term and long-term
The conditional irritants described above (unimodular or different it is possible to show to an animal in the form of a chain of irritants when between them there are pauses. In this case the conditioned reflex on a chain of irritants is developed.
Having divided all reflexes on conditional and unconditional, Pavlov, analysed a role of conditioned reflexes in life of the highest animals and the person and came to conclusion that all that we call a habit, a stereotype, education, training, is based on development of reflexes of different types and different degree of complexity. Thus, Pavlov claimed, the scientist is passed by the problems anyway connected with mental processes which essence has to be explained with the physiologist on a natural-science basis.
Characteristic of procedure of development of conditioned reflexes on complex and chain irritants is that at the initial stages of development each of irritants in a complex or a chain shown separately causes this conditional reaction. However in process of consolidation
Really, the structure of mentality of the person is unusually difficult, various and individual, that is the mentality of the person in the highest measure is subjective in character. Feelings, representations, consciousness (ability to allocate themselves from surrounding society, memory, thinking and so forth belong to the mental phenomena. Complexity of mental human life drew to itself attention of philosophers, scientists, writers long ago. What mechanisms provide the most difficult mental phenomena, since feelings and finishing thinking?
the forthcoming action (acceptor of results of action), about a role of requirements, emotions, memories in implementation of purposeful behavior, allowed to overcome approach peculiar to Descartes-Pavlov's theory to an organism as to the machine gun which always is equally reacting to external incentives. Overcoming of mechanistic positions in the analysis of activity of an organism is the main achievement of the theory of functional systems of Anokhin.