The fullest form of specialization was received and mechanical engineering. The coefficient of relative export specialization (CRES) and an export quota in production of branch belong to new indicators of the international specialization of branch. KOES is determined by a formula:
The international division of labor can be defined as the highest step of development of public territorial division of labor between the countries which relies on steady, economic specializations of productions of the certain countries on these or those types of production between them to a mutual exchange of results of production between them certain quantitative ratios.
The joint venture has considerable development in the developed capitalist countries. So, 77% - the American, 82% - English, 86% - German and more than 50% - Japanese direct investments are available in the developed capitalist countries.
The matter is that, in - the first, the markets for production of the branches replacing import have limited character owing to insufficient development of production in RS. For example, there are about 30 economically underdeveloped countries with the population chilennost less than 6 million people in everyone, and these states is not able to provide needing work - from here and the narrowest market capacity, conditions for the organization of norialny reproduction process out of a support on" an external factor" are almost weak.
MRT is broader economic category in comparison with the international cooperation which is one of the parties and the main forms of manifestation of MTR. In turn, the international cooperation is based on the specialization of production reflecting other party and other main of the MRT forms.
For the new industrial countries it is characteristic not only labor-consuming, but also capital-intensive and even tekhnoyemky specialization (for example, in metallurgy and electronics). South Korea, Taiwan and other countries already put the export pressure upon Japan. In metallurgical industry it is southern - the Korean enterprises are more effective, than outdated steel foundries in Japan.
According to forecasts of experts the world division of labor in the long term will steadily go deep. In the long term production of the developed countries will be guided by external consumers, and domestic demand - for import.
The international division of labor - division of labor between the countries in certain quantitative and qualitative ratios, mediate an exchange between them goods services and other results of socially useful activity.
The changing role in world economy. In development of RS undoubtedly forward tendency changing character of the relations in system" development of the state - developing countries prevails". Many of RS already release machines, vessels, electronics, turbines, mastered production and assembly of cars, other difficult cars and finished products. Such countries as India, Egypt, Brazil, Argentina, South Korea and some other, considerably work and for export, taking out production of mechanical engineering, electronics, garments, etc., restrict such competitors as Japan, the USA, the European countries on the whole commodity groups.
Overcoming will occupy it long historically. By the most optimistic estimates of authoritative western economists, for example, the lareata of the Nobel Prize of V. Leontyev (a known dolad of the UN "The future of world economy"), possibility of the lividation of the existing gap in the level of economic development between developed and developing countries can arise only in the middle of the XXI century. This vozmodnost can be realized in case considerable inflow of external resources to these countries that will provide the increased rates of their growth remains.
The bureau of statistics of work of the USA carries to the knowledge-intensive sector those subsectors, where a share of costs of research and development in the cost of sales and a share of scientists and a scientific and technological revolution in the number of busy average values on the industry / respectively 3,1 and 6,3%. 92 of 977 subsectors of a national economy of the USA treat the knowledge-intensive. Allocate also subsectors with the increased knowledge intensity where the specified indicators at least are twice higher than averages. Carry to number of such high-tech branches: productions of medical preparations, COMPUTER and equipment, radio-electronic components, laboratory equipment, aviation and raketnokosmichesky industry.